June 9, 2007 Summer Tip #6
eCoaching Tip #47 Journaling, Blogging and Wiki-ing
Fundamentals Tip – Effective Reflection Activities
This tip includes another fundamentals tip as part of our summer quick reminder series.
This fundamentals tip encourages you to design reflective activities, as reflection is the time that learners really integrate the new incoming knowledge with their existing understandings.
What do learners do in reflection? An effective reflective activity requires learners to prepare and share their synthesis of what they are learning. In other words, it is time to step back and explicitly decide what they are getting from their learning experiences. Learners should be encouraged to share genuine emotions as well, as a sense of fun and imagination can make reflective activities even more effective. Emotion can deepen our processing and help us remember. Reflective activities may extend to learners saying what personal value they gained from an experience.
Making meaning out of a learning situation requires time to first contemplate the experience and information, and then time to synthesize and link that meaning within the context of existing and newly acquired knowledge. Activities that are done too quickly are reactive, not reflective.
Many learners are unfamiliar with the concept of reflection and its role in the learning process. Therefore, when introducing reflective activities, a short description of reflection and its purpose is a good idea. Consider using something similar to the following in your course instructions:
“In this course you will be asked to reflect and critically analyze various concepts and processes and record your thoughts — using either a simple journal approach or a blog. This will be an ongoing process in which you will examine what you are learning, develop questions, and then construct summary thoughts. The purpose of this reflective experience is to provide space and time for you to process the course content at a deeper level and to develop new knowledge and skills based on your thoughts about that knowledge.”
You may wish to provide specific guidelines concerning what should be included in the reflective journal or blog. Dave Johnson, a professor of nursing at the University of Saint Francis in Fort Wayne, requires learners to structure their blog entries in three parts: Insights, Resources, and Applications (IRAs) (2004). Insights are one or more major ideas derived from content; resources are additional books, articles, news items, web sites, that amplify the insights, and applications are thoughts on how the information is related to something that has happened, or is currently happening, in the learner’s profession.
Advanced Tip — Blogs and Wikis: Facebooks for the Mind
We all know why discussion boards are so essential to an online course. Discussion boards and forums is where “face-to-face” community develops. These are the spaces where learners experience social, cognitive and teaching presence. Discussion boards are also valuable as places to provide guidance and encouragement, and support questioning, dialogue and sustained thoughtfulness.
This tip explores the new wave of online writing and collaborative tools that are now so widely available, such as online journals, blogs, and wikis. This tip examines how these might be used in an online course and what unique benefits they might bring to learning experiences.
One obvious benefit to learning is that blogs support critical thinking, writing and collaborative skills within a personal yet shared communal space that feels dynamic and spontaneous, despite its asynchronicity. Blogs might well be called the “facebooks” or “youtubes” of the mind. They are often also categorized as personal publishingtools.
Wikis, on the other hand, are designed for shared collaborative work. They are well-suited for producing substantive content and plans, such as reports, websites, or something as simple as a camping trip or something as complex as the multilingual global content Wikipedia. For a quick look on how wikis work, check out this three-minute video of how a wiki works.
Journaling, with its roots in the classic and traditional paper format, is more personal and more private, capturing and recording feelings, ideas and impressions that may not ready for public scrutiny or comment.
Let’s look at these three tools in more detail to help you plan on how you might use them in your next course.
More about Journaling, Blogging and Wiki-ing
Journaling can be done very simply within any online learning environment. A learner can create journal entries in a word processing application, in an online journal or in an individual blog tool. Then if the journal is to be kept private between the learner and instructor, the journal can be submitted using a url, or simple email or drop box. If the journal is a shorter piece and is to be viewed publicly, then the journal might be simply attached or copied into a discussion post in the course site.
What are Blogs?
By googling “blog” you will find lots of definitions of blogs. Here is one that I think works well.
A ‘weblog’ (or ‘web log’ or ‘blog’) can mean any authored content with an underlying chronological basis that is published on the World Wide Web. The content may be about any topic and consist of any media, including audio, images and video, though presently the majority of blogs are largely text-based.
A blog can be authored by one or more people, who are the blog ‘owners’, responsible for maintaining the blog. (Trafford, 2005)
Another popular definition of a blog is a “personal online digital diary” that invites readers to comment, respond, and critique the life events and thoughts of the blog owner.
Blogs started appearing broadly about 2003, and by 2006 pundits estimated that there were more than 50 million blogs. By late 2010 the estimatefrom Blog Pulse was over 146 million and growing by over 50,000 every 24 hours. So blogs are definitely a phenomenon that has arrived.
Here are three resources for learning more about how blogs are being used in higher education.
- <http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/palfrey/2010/08/> This is a blog maintained by John Palfrey, a Clinical Professor of Law at Harvard Law School and Executive Director of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society.This blog is not a course blog; it is a blog for the activities of the Berkman center. It is an unusual blog in that there are continuous postings from March 2003 up to at least August of 2010. Dr. Palfrey’s work focuses onInternet law, intellectual property, and the potential of new technologies to strengthen democracies locally and around the world.As you look at this blog, you will see that the amount of commenting by others is quite low. Commenting is what makes a blog feel more dynamic and “alive.”
- Paul Trafford’s article Mobile Blogs, Personal Reflections and Learning Environmentsavailable at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue44/trafford/discusses blogging terminology and how to use personal reflective blogs in a learning environment.
- Educational Bloggingby Stephen Downes at <http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0450.pdf> outlines ways that both instructors and learners can use blogging in instructional settings and describes the software required for blogging if you need to set up a separate blogging tool.
How are Blogs different from Journals?
Most definitions of blogs and wikis can’t capture the very unique characteristics of blogs and wikis and how they compare with journaling as a learning tool. Here is a chart comparing the key characteristics of journals, blogs, and wikis.
|Authored by one person and often read or reviewed by invitation only||Authored by one person; but might invite responses, comments and critiques by a larger peer group or community; blogs can also be small team, group or community blogs||Authored by many, as Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rather than personal publishing; it is collective and collaborative publishing|
|Organized chronologically from first posting to most recent||Organized chronologically with the latest postings first||Displays the latest edited version of the collective work, while archiving changes|
|Authored over time; shared at specific intervals or at end of a project||Authored over time, but shared as new postings appear||Authored over time and updated by latest author|
|Is a stand-alone document with few links to other authors or readers||Can be “subscribed to” so that a reader will receive alerts when a new posting appears||Also can have RSS subscriber capabilities|
|Can include media of all types, such as pictures, video, text and weblinks. Depending on tool, accommodating media types can be easy or difficult.||Can include media of all types, such as pictures, video, text and weblinks and easy to do.||Can include media of all types, such as pictures, video, text and weblinks and is easy to do.|
|Can be used by wanna-be authors to become instantly “published”||Can be used by groups to collectively create and publish|
|A blog can be linked to and indexed by a larger blogging community. It can be a public space for comment and related resource and information sharing.||Wikis can also link to other resources and can be indexed and of course publicly edited depending on author’s controls.|
After looking at how journals, blogs and wikis compare, the next question is which tools are best are best for which instructional goals?
The first characteristic listed is the primary difference, that of authorship and the resulting outcome or product. For those learning goals related most closely to individuals, the more personal and private journal may be appropriate. For those goals related to personal and public sharing and commenting and group reflection the blog may work best; and for group projects depending on collective work and products to be used or consumed by others, the wiki may be the first tool to consider.
This is just a preliminary and early, in technological terms, look at these tools. As with many decisions in teaching and learning, the best answer to any question of design is “It all depends.” Subsequent tips will explore questions such as, “What examples show a match between instructional goal and tool?” and “What time within a course might a tool best be used.” Other questions? Send them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Conrad, R. & Donaldson, A. Engaging Learners Online.Jossey-Bass, 2004.
Evans, Cindy. Exploring Wiki-based Project Learning in Foreign Cultures and LiteraturesRetrieved September 22, 2010 from http://php.csumb.edu/wlc/ojs/index.php/ds/article/viewFile/78/77
LeFever, Lee. (2007, 2010) RSS in Plain English. Common Craft Show. Retrieved September 22, 2010 from http://www.commoncraft.com/rss-plain-english-three-years-old-today
LeFever, Lee. (2007) Wikis in Plain English. Common Craft Show. Retrieved September 22, 2010 fromhttp://www.commoncraft.com/video-wikis-plain-english
Mader, Stewart. (2008) Interview: The State of Wikis in Education. Retrieved September 22, 2010 from http://www.futurechanges.org/2008/04/10/interview-the-state-of-wikis-in-education/
Morgan, M.C. Weblogs and Wikis. Retrieved September 22, 2010 from http://erhetoric.org/WeblogsAndWikis/HomePage
Richardson, W. A personal blog to explore. Retrieved September 22, 2010 fromhttp://weblogg-ed.com/.
Trafford, Paul. (2005) Mobile Blogs, Personal Reflections and Learning Environments Retrieved September 22, 2010 from http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue44/trafford/
Young, J. R. (2007). An Anthropologist Explores the Culture of Video Blogging.Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington DC. 53 (36) p. A42. Retrieved September 22, 2010 http://chronicle.com/article/An-Anthropologist-Explores-the/11951
Note: These E-coaching tips were initially developed for faculty in the School of Leadership & Professional Advancement at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA. This library of tips has been organized and updated through 2016 in the second edition of the book, The Online Teaching Survival Guide: Simple and Practical Pedagogical Tips coauthored with Rita Marie Conrad. Judith can be reached judith followed by designingforlearning.org.